Submersible pump

From Academic Kids

A submersible pump is a pump which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The advantage of this type of pump is that, in a large installation, there is a significant reduction in the amount of concrete required to build the reservoir since a separate dry-well is not required.

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Electrical_Submersible_Pump.png
ESP systems are effective for pumping produced fluids to surface.

A system of mechanical seals are used to prevent the fluid being pumped entering the motor and causing a short circuit. The pump can either be connected to a pipe, flexible hose or lowered down guide rails or wires so that the pump sits on a "ducks foot" coupling, thereby connecting it to the delivery pipework.

Submersible pumps are found in many applications, single stage pumps are used for drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping and slurry pumping. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and used for water abstraction.

Submersible pumps are also used in oil wells. By reducing the pressure at the bottom of the well significantly, more oil can be produced from the well compared to natural production. This makes Electric Submersible Pumping (ESP) a form of "artificial lift" (as opposed to natural flow) along with Gas_Lift and Beam Pumping.

The ESP system consists of a number of components that turn a staged series of centrifugal pumps to increase the pressure of the well fluid and push it to the surface. The energy to turn the pump comes from a high-voltage (3 to 5 kV) alternating-current source to drive a special motor that can work at high temperatures of up to 300 F (150 C) and high pressures of up to 5000 lb/in² (34 MPa), from deep wells of up to 12000 feet (3.7 km) deep with high energy requirements of up to about 1000 horsepower (750 kW). ESPs have dramatically lower efficiencies with significant fractions of gas, greater than about 10% volume at the pump intake. Given their high rotational speed of up to 4000 rpm (67 Hz) and tight clearances, they are not very tolerant of solids such as sand.

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