Dirichlet convolution

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In mathematics, the Dirichlet convolution is a binary operation defined for arithmetic functions; it is of importance in number theory. This was developed by Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, a German mathematician.

If f and g are two arithmetic functions (i.e. functions from the positive integers to the complex numbers), one defines a new arithmetic function f * g, the Dirichlet convolution of f and g, by

<math>(f*g)(n) = \sum_{d|n} f(d)g(n/d) \,<math>

where the sum extends over all positive divisors d of n.

Some general properties of this operation include:

  • If both f and g are multiplicative, then so is f * g. (Note however that the convolution of two completely multiplicative functions need not be completely multiplicative.)
  • f * g = g * f (commutativity)
  • (f * g) * h = f * (g * h) (associativity)
  • f * (g + h) = f * g + f * h (distributivity)
  • f * ε = ε * f = f, where ε is the function defined by ε(n) = 1 if n = 1 and ε(n) = 0 if n > 1.
  • For each f for which f(1) ≠ 0 there exists a g such that f * g = ε. g is called the Dirchlet inverse of f.
  • In particular, every multiplicative f has a Dirichlet inverse g that is also multiplicative.

With addition and Dirichlet convolution, the set of arithmetic functions forms a commutative ring with multiplicative identity ε, the Dirichlet ring (note that it is not a field because some arithmetic functions do not have Dirichlet inverses). The units of this ring are the arithmetical functions f with f(1) ≠ 0.

Furthermore, the multiplicative functions with convolution form an abelian group with identity element ε. The article on multiplicative functions lists several convolution relations among important multiplicative functions.

If f is an arithmetic function, one defines its Dirichlet series generating function by

<math>

DG(f;s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{f(n)}{n^s} <math>

for those complex arguments s for which the series converges (if there are any). The multiplication of Dirichlet series is compatible with Dirichlet convolution in the following sense:

<math>

DG(f;s) DG(g;s) = DG(f*g;s)\, <math>

for all s for which the left hand side exists. This is akin to the convolution theorem if one thinks of Dirichlet series as a Fourier transform.de:Zahlentheoretische Funktion ko:디리클레 합성곱 sv:Dirichletfaltning

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